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The soldiers of General Maczek in WO II
Oorlog -- Polen (2004) [Zbigniew Mieczkowksy]
The soldiers of General Maczek in WO II
Sixty years have elapsed from the wartime exploits of the 1st Polish Armoured Division.
Fate denied her soldiers, who brought freedom to other nations, the privilege of liberating their own country. The memorial erected in Warsaw in 1995 thus became a poignant
symbol of their return fifty years after the end of hostilities. It marked the end of their long march home from foreign lands.
Sadly, General Stanislaw Maczek and many of hls soldiers did not live to see the rebirth of a democratie Poland. Among those who did return to take part in the unveiling of
the memorial, built in their honour, are the co-authors of this book who share here their wartime experiences and ordeals.
The aim of this book is to preserve their memories, to bear witness to their fortunes in the uncertain future and to acknowledge the gratitude and friendship manifested in so
many ways by the towns and villages liberated by the Division in Western Europe.
Poland’s decision to make a stand against Nazi Germany in 1939 changed the course of the Second World War. Had she accepted Hitler’s proposals to profeet Europe against
the march of Communism, as she did alone in 1920, the initial German offensive against the West would have prejudiced the outcome of the conflict and reshaped the balance of
political forces in post-war Europe.
That decision brought to Poland unforeseen consequences. Left without help in September 1939, in spite of promises and guarantees, and deserted by Western powers at the
end of the war, she alone amongst the victors sustained complete defeat. Unmeasured destruction, annihilation of one-fifth of her population at German and Russian hands,
deportations and territorial changes altered her historical role from that of a bastion of Western civilisation to a province of the Communist East.
Throughout a thousand years of history at the time of her power as a Republic of Nobility and also on the threshold of her decline by the end of the 18,h century, Poland
exercised a leading role in Central Europe in the development of the Parliamentary system of government, safeguarding the privilege of liberty for her citizens. After the victorious war
with Russia in 1920, having driven back the invading Communist forces and regaining lands of the former Polish Kingdom inhabited by national minorities, she established religious tol-
erance and secured human rights for all her people. These human rights were forfeited during the later 50 years of Soviet imperialist rule.
In September 1939 Poland feil fighting simultaneously against the might of Germany’s mechanised divisions and the Russian armies allied with Hitler. In the last days of peace,
fulfilling her treaty agreement of mutual assistance, she equipped France and England with its most valuable weapon - the Enigma machine. This coding system, acquired by Polish
Intelligence, provided the key to Germany’s war secrets and enabled the Allies to predict all enemy action, including its bombardment schedules, throughout the whole war.
Defeated in the military campaign, the Polish natiën did not for a moment acknowledge full defeat. The Underground Army was born with the echo of the last shot fired in the
defence of Warsaw and grew to comprise half a million volunteers within the next few years.
In the West, forces a quarter of a million strong were formed in two phases. Immediately at the outbreak of war the Polish navy sailed to British ports to continue its activities. General
Sikorski’s call brought one hundred thousand men under the Colours in France. After Germany’s assault on Russia thousands of Polish soldiers who were released from prisons and
labour camps joined the 2nd Corps under General Anders. They were short, however, of officers, whose mass graves were eventually discovered in the Katyn Woods.
Polish soldiers, airmen and seamen fought the enemy on all war fronts: from Narvik to Tobruk, at Monte Cassino and Falaise. In the Battle of Britain every sixth German plane
was shot down by a Polish pilot. The Polish airforce, together with the English and Americans, eventually laid waste to Berlin, Cologne and Bremen.
The battles of the 1st Polish Armoured Division have received much acclaim in literary works by Polish writers and other authors on military matters of the Second World War.
Readers interested in this subject will find several references, not only in respect to the Division itself, but also historical books helpful in understanding Poland in between the wars,
in the enclosed index of sources. This introduction, therefore, is intended only as a guide to the events during which the Division was born and then re-created on foreign soil, an expla-
nation of its traditions and an insight into its most decisive war engagements.
From a peacetime strength of 40 infantry divisions and 10 cavalry brigades, Poland confronted Germany with one million men at the outbreak of the war. Well disciplined and
patriotic, this Polish Army inflicted on the Germans who were twice their number and superior in equipment losses similar in casualties but greater in tanks and equipment than they
sustained later when defeating the Anglo-French forces in 1940.
klik op de pijlpunt links voor het volledige Foreword
Foundation Commemoration of General Maczek First Polish Armoured Division. Warsaw/London;
Proefschrift Corné Roelen (geb. 1966) 1995
Personen -- Personen q-r-s-t-u (1995) [Corné Roelen]
The influence of growth hormone on high affinity plasma growth hormone binding protein
ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor
aan de Universiteit Utrecht
op gezag van de Rector Magnificus
Prof. Dr. J.A. van Ginkel
ingevolge het besluit van het College van Decanen
in het openbaar te verdedigen op
dinsdag 14 maart 1995 des namiddags te 2.30 uur.
Cornelis Adrianus Maria Roelen
geboren op 17 maart 1966 te Prinsenbeek
Universiteit Utrecht (geneeskunde);
A Summer in a Dutch Country House
Historie -- 06.027 (1889) [Mrs. Arthur Traherne]
Facsimile Herdruk van oorspronkelijke roman over Boschdal Prinsenbeek in British Library Historical Collection uit 2014
1N PUBLISHING the following sketch of the domestic life of one of the highest Dutch families, my object is to show that training in
the most ordinary duties of a household is, in Holland, considered essential, in order to form the character of a perfect woman.
To the holiest principles should be added the sense of daily duties, of the sacredness of promises, self-denial and endurance. Our gracious
Queen has reared her children in all these qualities, and the result is that our Royal Princesses are shining lights in our empire. To
great accomplishments and talents they unite the perfect fulfilment of daily domestic duties.
In illustration of this we have only to study the characters of the beloved Empress Frederick of Germany, and read the beautiful life of the
deeply lamented Princess Alice of Hesse-Darmstadt. History, especially that of our own country, which is philosophy teaching by ex-
ample, should be carefully’ studied : biography also, for ‘ the lives of great men all remind us we may make our lives sublime.' These studies
will strengthen the mind, and, with such solid foundation, the sensational literature of the present day’ will be less sought after, and, if
read, will be fess injurious.
In this great empire, with its vast Colonies, none can tell where their lot in life may’ be cast, but of one thing all may’ be assured, that useful-
ness is invaluable.
A perfect insight into housekeeping, culinary art, needlework, knitting, with some knowledge of ambulance duties, will fit every one for
English, foreign, or colonial life.
W omanly gentleness and love, to which are added a well-stored mind and a knowledge of such practical duties, will qualify’ a girl to be-
come, if God will, a useful wife, a tender mother or. if these blessings be denied her, a sweet true friend, a charming companion, a beloved Sama-
ritan amongst her kindred and neighbours ; indeed, such a one, unhampered by closer ties, can the better move about as an angel in the
house of joy, or of sorrow.
H. MARGARET A. TRAHERNE.